Kidney Donor Risks
Donating a kidney is major surgery but has not been shown to reduce the donor’s life expectancy. Interestingly, people who have donated a kidney outlive the average person. (Reference: Fehrman-Ekholm, Ingela 2,3; Transplantation, 64(7): 976-978, October 15, 1997.)
This fact has fueled an ongoing debate over why kidney donors live longer than expected. Some experts believe that it is simply a selection bias since only healthy people can be selected to be living donors.
Others argue that the altruistic act of giving the gift of life and the happiness and satisfaction that follows has a positive impact and leads to a healthier and longer life.
Donors face the possibility of post-operative complications such as bleeding, wound infection, fever, etc. Most of the post-operative complications are generally short-term and can be addressed with quality medical care.
The two types of kidney removal procedures, laparoscopic and non-laparoscopic, have very different recovery times.
- Laparoscopic kidney removal is less invasive and allows the donor to be discharged 1-2 days after surgery, allowing the donor to return to work in one to four weeks depending on the donor’s occupation.
- Non-laparoscopic surgery has a longer recovery time. National Kidney Registry Member Centers generally utilize the laparoscopic procedure.
Although more than 5,000 living donors in the United States donate their kidneys every year, the procedure is not without risks.
The donor surgery has a 3 in 10,000 mortality rate which means that on average 3 donors die for every 10,000 living donor surgeries.
As a point of comparison, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the 2017 infant mortality rate in the United States was 58 in 10,000, indicating that it is about 20 times riskier to be born in the United States than to donate a kidney.
We believe that some of the donor deaths in the United States were avoidable and potential donors will reduce the mortality risk if they have the surgery done at a Donor Care Network Center of Excellence.
Long Term Outcomes
Although kidney donation does not appear to impact life expectancy, research indicates that donating a kidney increases the risk of kidney failure over the donor’s life-time.
In a 2015 paper published in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology; lifetime risk of kidney failure for the average person was 326 in 10,000 (about 1 in 30), 90 in 10,000 (about 1 in 110) for those who donated a kidney and 14 in 10,000 (about 1 in 700) for healthy non-donors.
The reason that kidney donors have a lower risk of kidney failure compared to the general population is that kidney donors are much healthier than the average person. When donors and healthy non-donors are compared, there is a kidney failure risk increase of 76 in 10,000 from donating a kidney.
Read more on the long-term risks of donating a kidney:
- Journal of the American Society of Nephrology – 2015
Reassessing Medical Risk in Living Kidney Donors
- Journal of the American Medical Association – 2014
Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease Following Live Kidney Donation
- New England Journal of Medicine – 2009
Long-Term Consequences of Kidney Donation